Participating Faculty


Anthony V. Nicola

Department:Veterinary Microbiology & Pathology
Credentials:1996 - Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania; Microbiology and Virology
Mailing Address:Veterinary Microbiology & Pathology
Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health
Washington State University
PO Box 647040
Pullman, WA 99164-7040
Website:Click here

Research Interests

Infectious diseases, virus entry, herpes simplex virus, sexually transmitted diseases, virus-cell interaction

Research Summary

Dr. Nicola has more than 20 years of experience studying the cell biology of herpes simplex virus glycoproteins and entry, and is perhaps best known for revealing that herpes viruses utilize low pH, endocytic pathways to enter and infect biologically relevant cells. This finding conflicted with the long-held dogma that herpes viruses were a paradigm for viruses that enter solely by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. However, over a short period of time, these findings were integrated into the field, and it was recognized that other herpes viruses including human cytomegalovirus, Kaposi’s sarcoma herpes virus and varicella zoster virus utilize similar pathways. In addition to pH-triggered entry, the Nicola lab also investigates the proteasome-dependent delivery of HSV capsids to the nucleus during entry. We utilize a combination of cellular, molecular, biochemical, and microscopic approaches to delineate the step-by-step itinerary of the incoming virus. A better understanding of how herpes simplex virus interacts with the cell will identify novel targets for intervention.

Research Publications


Weed D. J., Pritchard, S. M., Gonzalez, F., Aguilar, H. C., and A. V. Nicola.  2017.  Mildly acidic pH triggers an irreversible conformational change in the fusion domain of herpes simplex virus 1 glycoprotein B and inactivation of viral entry.  Journal of Virology 91 pii: e02123-16.

Wudiri, G. A. and A. V. Nicola.  2017.  Cellular cholesterol facilitates the post-entry replication cycle of herpes simplex virus 1.  Journal of Virology 91 doi: 10.1128/JVI.00445-17

Weed, D. J. and A. V. Nicola.  2017.  Herpes simplex virus membrane fusion.  Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology 223: 29-47. 

Wudiri, G. A., Schneider, S. M., and A. V. Nicola.  2017.  Herpes simplex virus 1 envelope cholesterol facilitates membrane fusion.  Frontiers in Microbiology 8:2383. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02383.

Stone, J. A., Nicola, A. V., Baum, L. G. and H. C. Aguilar.  2016.  Multiple novel functions of Henipavirus O-glycans: The first O-glycan functions identified in the Paramyxovirus family.  PLoS Pathogens 12(2): e1005445.

Nicola, A. V.  2016.  Herpesvirus entry into host cells mediated by endosomal low pH. Traffic 17: 965-975. 

Walker, E. B., Pritchard, S. M., Aguilar, H. C., and A. V. Nicola.  2015.  Polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion of herpes simplex virions with the plasma membrane of cells that support endocytic entry.  Virology Journal 12:190.

Wudiri, G. A., Pritchard, S. M., Aguilar, H. C., Li, H., Liu, J., Gilk, S. D., and A. V. Nicola.  2014.  Molecular requirement for sterols in herpes simplex virus entry and infectivity.  Journal of Virology 88: 13918-13922.

Landowski, M., Dabundo, J., Nicola, A. V., and H. C. Aguilar.  2014.  Nipah virion entry kinetics, composition, and conformational changes determined by enzymatic VLPs and new flow virometry tools.  Journal of Virology 88: 14197-14206.

Liu, Q., Stone, J. A., Bradel-Tretheway, B., Dabundo, J., Benavides Montano, J. A., Santos-Montanez, J., Biering, S., Nicola, A. V., Iorio, R., Lu, X., and H. C. Aguilar. 2013. Unraveling a three-step spatiotemporal mechanism of triggering of receptor-induced Nipah virus fusion and cell entry.  PLoS Pathogens 9 (11): e1003770.

Komala Sari, T., Pritchard, S. M., Cunha, C. W., Wudiri, G. A., Laws, E. I., Aguilar, H. C., Taus, N. S., and A. V. Nicola.  2013. Contributions of herpes simplex virus 1 envelope proteins to viral entry by endocytosis.  Journal of Virology 87: 13922-13926.


Washington State University